1. Overview of the fire alarm system
A fire alarm system consists of a set of devices that are responsible for detecting and alarming when a fire occurs. The fire alarm system can be done automatically by fire, smoke, heat sensors or by humans through the emergency button. The requirement of this system is to always operate 24/24 in the most stable way, even during power failure.
The main functions of the fire alarm system include:
- Play a key role in sensing, alarming, a fire is breaking out manually or automatically.
- Warn everyone in the building that there is a fire, combined with an announcement sound system to evacuate everyone.
- Transmit fire notification signals to fire protection agencies or emergency response units.
- Provide signals to control peripheral devices: disconnect the power supply, air system, elevator, emergency exit door, fire door, etc. In addition, the fire alarm system can also control fire fighting equipment.
2. What does the fire alarm system include?
A standard fire alarm system will usually consist of 3 main parts:
– Fire alarm center: Cabinet design, including main equipment: information processing board, power supply, backup battery.
– Input device (monitoring device):
+ Detectors: smoke detectors, heat detectors, combined thermal smoke, gas detectors, Beam detectors...
+ Emergency switch (emergency button).
+ Monitoring module (address system)
– Output device:
+ Alarm bells, sirens, alarm lights, etc.
+ Secondary display panel.
+ Automatic phone dialer.
+ Control module.
3. Types of fire alarm system
Conventional Fire Alarm System - Conventional Fire Alarm System
+ Conventional fire alarm system has 2 types 12VDC or 24VDC. Theoretically both types have the same technical features and uses. But, compared to the 24V fire alarm system, the 12V fire alarm system is not professional, the 12V type must use a 4-wire detector that combines the center of the burglar alarm system with the programmable keyboard. While the 24V system is a dedicated fire alarm system, capable of transmitting signals further and often using 2-wire detectors, a programmable keypad is not required. However, the 12V fire alarm system has a lower cost than the 24V system.
+ Fire alarm monitoring, fault reporting by area (zone)
Zones include one or more monitoring devices: detectors, sensors, push buttons, etc.
+ Devices on 1 zone are installed in many different locations on the same floor/wide area.
+ Zone fire alarm cabinets operate independently.
+ Each zone needs a separate signal line, so it is very expensive if the system has many zones.
+ When the fire alarm / fault alarm device cannot know exactly which device / location is alarming.
+ Low cost, suitable for installation of small projects.
Addressable Fire Alarm System - Addressable Fire Alarm System:
+ All devices (addresses) carry a separate address set manually or automatically.
+ When the fire alarm / fault alarm will show the exact device / device location.
+ Possibility to combine conventional fire alarms through modules.
+ The centers can be linked together to form a large system of many centers, which can be centrally managed.
+ Each loop circuit can connect many devices (more than 100 addresses per loop), saving wires.
Each loop provides power, communication and monitoring of all devices connected to it.
+ Flexible control programming (Cause and Effect).
+ Can monitor visually on the computer.
+ Many types of equipment for flexibility in use.
4. Working principle of fire alarm system
The operating procedure of the fire alarm system is a closed process. When there is a phenomenon of fire (such as a sudden increase in temperature, the appearance of smoke or sparks), the input devices (detectors, emergency switches) receive signals and transmit information of fire alarm center failure. Here the center will process the received information, determine the location where the fire occurs, transmit the information to the output devices (sub-display board, bell, whistle, light), these devices will emit sound and light signals to let people know the area where the fire is happening and handle it promptly.
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